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Chapter 8: Basics Of Desktop Publishing
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Information to help you use WYSIWYG page formatting software and a high-resolution laser printer to make camera-ready originals ready to take to the printer.
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©2012, 2004, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
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Worker Handbook Table of Contents
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the advent of desktop publishing
My Background and Experience in the Areas of Keyboarding and Desktop Publishing
A Flier or a Full-length Book
A Printer's Short Lexicon
Ten Cardinal Rules:
1. Save every 15 minutes
2. Create and save on the hard drive; back up on a high capacity external hard drive daily
3. Start with a dummy (nothing personal)
4. Write With The Carriage Returns Visible
5. Never Use The SPACE BAR, Return Or Tab Key To Format A Paragraph
6. Print In Laser/Ink Jet Fonts Only
7. Use Times For Body Text (Serif)
8. Use arial or helvetica for Headings (Sans Serif)
9. Watch Odds And Evens
10. Use White Space To Separate A Paragraph From Its Head
11. Compose In a font that's easy to proofread
12. Get The Format Right For The First Paragraph
13. White Space
14. Limit Number Of Fonts Per Page
15. Forget Courier
16. Forget Underlining
17. Type Body Text In Upper/Lower Case
18. Emphasize And Break Up Your Work With Headings
19. Use A Variety Of Heading Layouts
20. Beware Of "Smart Quotes"
21. You Can Say A Lot With Bullets
22. Charts And Cover Spines
23. Reinforce Your Handouts With Visuals
24. Guidelines For Name Badges
25. Know Your Printer's Limitations
26. Know The Primary Graphic Types
27. Follow These Major Steps To Prepare A Document For Publication With A Page Formatting Program Such As PageMaker.
Text Formatting Tips In PageMaker
29. Use Keyboard Shortcuts
Tips For Data Entry
30. Spell Out Acronyms
31. Get The Person's Name Right
33. Collecting Information From Application Forms
34. Omit Titles
35. Mailing Addresses Can Be Complicated
36. Take Your Time
37. Use And and not ampersand [&]
38. Hyphens, Dashes, And Automatic Hyphenation
39. The First Shall Be First
40. Teachers: We Teach Students
41. Watch Mixed Upper And Lower Case
Appendix A: Desktop Publishing Glossary
With the advent of desktop publishing, your organization can give a typeset appearance to all your handouts and training materials, including throwaways such as your weekly bulletins.
All that is needed is:
A high-end word processor [such as Microsoft Word or WordPerfect, [or page formatting software [such as PageMaker] for the Macintosh or Windows.
An ink-jet printer (starts at under $100), or a laser printer.
The knowledge to use them.
A print shop which is willing to print multiple copies from your camera-ready originals, for a fee, or course.
Personal Background and Experience in the Areas of Keyboarding and Desktop Publishing
1944: Banged on my Dad's old Royal portable typewriter as a kid
1951: Took typing in high school [The principal was opposed but Dad convinced him a college student needed typing. Thanks, Dad!
1956 Bought my first typewriter: a Smith-Corona portable.
1963 Used my typewriter to type the first 3 chapters of a thesis for an instructor in grad school statistics who was a stickler for proper format according to Campbell's Form and Style in Thesis Writing. This guy could spot any spacing or formatting error that was not according to Campbell. My three fifths thesis got an A!
1973 Bought my first electric typewriter, an IBM Selectric II; it could type at 10 or 12 characters per inch; used interchangeable type balls that could change the look of the characters but always typed non-proportionally.
1981: Sent my first e-mail message.
1983: Started to use Apple IIe computers in my work.
1984: Bought my first computer, an Apple IIe computer with dot matrix printer.
1984 Started to use the Apple Macintosh computer with the Apple LaserWriter printer. This combination permitted the office worker to create "camera-ready originals" that were ready for high-speed duplication such as offset printing. Naturally, the spacing was proportional or non-proportional according the font used. Proportional spacing gave everything a typeset, printed-page look.
1987 Using the Macintosh and LaserWriter, created the camera-ready originals for my first novel; sent these originals to a printer in Michigan; he returned printed and bound books, ready for distribution.
1987-1990. Wrote and formatted numerous products which were duplicated and distributed for education use in Pennsylvania. The following products received national distribution: PennStar IEP System User Manual; PennStar Planned Course System User Manual.
1990-1993 Became computer coordinator for the Pennsylvania Bureau of Special Education; was responsible for selecting and ordering 40 Macintosh computers and four LaserWriters. Designed and maintained a network of these Macs. Selected, installed, and trained workers in using desktop publishing software, including MS Word word processing and Aldus PageMaker [desktop publishing].
1995: Bought my first Macintosh computer and Apple LaserWriter printer.
1995 Created DiskBooks Electronic Publishing.
1995-2011 Published numerous items on the World Wide Web via DiskBooks Electronic Publishing.
2008 Published Night Watchman blog with emphasis on anti-Obama material
2011 Published Drawbridge blog, continuing with anti-Obama material
2011 Learned how to convert my PDF products to the Kindle format at no cost to the user.
With the advent of desktop publishing, your church can give a typeset appearance to all your handouts and training materials, including throwaways such as your weekly bulletins.
All that is needed is:
A high-end word processor [such as Microsoft Word or WordPerfect] or page formatting software [such as PageMaker] for the Macintosh or Windows.
An ink-jet printer (starts at $100), or a laser printer.
The knowledge to use them.
A print shop which is willing to print multiple copies from your camera-ready originals, for a fee, or course.
The process is very simple:
A. Create your document with your computer and print the camera-ready originals(s) with your printer.
B. Take your originals to the print shop. My print shop will let me send PageMaker files over the phone line; maybe yours will, too.
You can use desktop publishing techniques for a one-page Sunday school picnic flier, or a full-length book. My first novel, Gone, was written on a Macintosh computer with a Microsoft Word word processor. Camera-ready originals were printed or an Apple LaserWriter laser printer. These originals were mailed to BookCrafters (140 Buchanan Street, Chelsea, MI 48118); [they could have been sent by modem.] The completed printed and bound books were shipped back to me by truck.
Desktop publishing is the use of a microcomputer and a laser/ink jet printer to produce camera-ready originals which have a typeset appearance. Desktop publishing includes, but is not limited to, the use of page formatting software such as PageMaker. In fact, high-end word processors (such as Microsoft Word or WorkPerfect include features which may be used in many desktop publishing routines.
Gutenberg put the printed page in the hands of the people. Now, the desktop publishing revolution, with products like WYSIWYG "what-you-see-is-what-you-get" (pronounced "WHIZZY-wig") word processors and the laser/ink jet printer, has put the typesetting of the page in the hands of the people. The technology of Gutenberg's day required that a printer "mind his Ps and Qs" because those letters were so easy to confuse in a type case.
what these guidelines are about: helping you to mind your desktop publishing Ps
and Qs. The modern microcomputer and laser/ink jet printer can make your successes
look glorious. However, they can also make your failures look dismal.
Printer's Short Lexicon
Printers and publishers tend to feel that we desktop upstarts may misuse time-honored printing terms. We probably do, and I will follow suit in these guidelines. To set the record straight, however, here are the proper definitions for the following terms:
Typeface, or just face: The physical appearance of a set of characters, such as Times or Arial or Helvetica. Desktop publishers in general tend to use "font" instead of "face."
Typestyle: A general enhancement for a typeface, such as: BOLD, ITALIC, or OUTLINE.
Font: A typeface in a particular point size is a font. Times 12 and Times 18 are fonts.
Leading (ledding): Controlling the amount of vertical space between lines of type.
Kerning: Controlling the amount of horizontal space between letters of a word.
The following documents were used as resources in compiling these guidelines
LaserWriter Manual(s), Apple Computer, Inc., 1988, et al.
The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage, Times Books, 1976
Gregg Reference Manual, McGraw Hill, 1977
The Ten Cardinal Rules
Save every 15 minutes
Your computer remembers nothing which is not saved to disk. Saving at least every 15 minutes will keep you from losing more than you would want to replace if someone kicks the plug out of the wall or maintenance turns off the power to work on the outlet in the next room. Make sure you know the folder or disk you are saving to when you make your first save. Afterwards, your computer will remember that location and always save to it.
Create and save on the hard drive; back up on an external hard drive daily
As a general rule, you should create and save all files on your hard drive, not on a zip disk or a 3.5-inch floppy disk. The failure rate for floppy disks is much higher than for a hard drive. Your backup drive may be a zip drive with a capacity of at least 750 megs, a flash drive [thumb drive] with a capacity of at least 2 gigs, or an external hard drive with a capacity of at least 20 gigs.
At the end of each work day, you should back up all important data files on your designated drive for backup purposes. If a file is lost or damaged, or if your computer dies overnight, these disks will enable you to continue working without a major loss of data.
Off-site automatic backup: My wife, Nancy, and I both use Carbonite automatic backup.
Start with a dummy (nothing personal)
Make a pencil-and-paper mockup of the general layout of your project. This is especially important for folded brochures. For example, be very sure you know the position of the first and last page of a 4-page brochure.
Write With The Carriage Returns Visible
Get into the habit of writing with your carriage returns visible. If you're using a Macintosh or Windows word processor, you'll probably have a paragraph symbol button on your tool bar for clicking carriage returns on and off. If you don't have a carriage return symbol on your tool bar, check your menus for all characters or invisible. Having all characters visible may be annoying at first. However, you'll soon learn that you will like to be able to see such characters as tabs carriage returns, spaces, etc.
Never Use The SPACE BAR, Return, or Tab Key To Format a Paragraph
Never use the space bar, tab, or Return to indent, center, or otherwise format a paragraph. Use standard formatting commands, only. If you don't know how to format a paragraph, just type straight text for now. Then, get help from someone who does know. Tab stops, extra spaces and carriage returns which are used to force-format a paragraph cause permanent damage, which may need to be corrected with individual clicks of the mouse. This is a time-consuming, irritating, and potentially expensive process.
Print In Laser/Ink Jet Fonts Only
These fonts are designed to give the best appearance to your text. Dot matrix fonts look relatively crude and amateurish when printed to a laser/ink jet printer. Use them for special effects, only.
Before printing your document, replace any dot matrix fonts with laser/ink jet printer fonts, even though you composed in a dot matrix font like Geneva.
As a general rule, dot matrix fonts (the ones to avoid when printing to the laser/ink jet printer) have geographic names, such as Geneva, New York, Monaco, and Chicago. laser/ink jet printer fonts have non-geographic names such as Times, Arial or Helvetica, Palatino, and Courier.
Use Times For Body Text (Serif)
Use a serif font for the body of your text. Times is the common serif font for the laser/ink jet printer. A serif font has little "handles" on the characters which tend to make them flow together and are easier to read.
Use Arial or Helvetica for Headings (Sans Serif)
Use a sans serif font (without handles) for headings and numerals. Arial or Helvetica (not Narrow Arial or Helvetica) is the best sans serif font for the laser/ink jet printer. See a printer manual for more information on serif and sans serif fonts.
Watch Odds And Evens
When a document's pages are printed back to back, the odd pages are on the right and the even pages are on the left. A chapter or major division usually begins on an odd page, on the right.
If your pages are numbered in the corners, the even page numbers are in the left corner and the odd page numbers are in the right.
A document which is to be printed back to back and bound should have a gutter down the center. This means the right edge of the even pages and the left edge of the odd pages will have wider margins. This extra space may be specified in the document layout screen of your word processor.
Use White Space To Separate A Paragraph From Its Head
Use the before/after command in the paragraph format dialog box to separate a heading from its paragraph. This standoff may be measured in points or fractions of an inch. Twelve points of space equals a line of 12 point text. Remember that you can control the size of carriage returns in the same way you control the size of characters. (This rule is not being observed here in the interest of showing more text on a single screen.)
Compose In an Easy-to-Proof Font
Compose your document in a font which is comfortable to read on the screen, such as Times New Roman or Arial. Avoid ornate script or Old English fonts for early compositions as they will make proofing a major head ache. After you are sure you are saying it right, you can quickly and easily switch to the ornate font.
Get The Format Right For The First Paragraph
When you press Return at the end of a formatted paragraph to begin a new paragraph, the formatting will be carried over.
A paragraph's formatting and tab stops may be stored in its carriage return symbol. To apply a paragraph's formatting to a new paragraph, copy the carriage return of a formatted paragraph to the clipboard and then paste it onto a new paragraph's selected carriage return.
Your word processor may give you even more power in formatting paragraphs by using the Style feature.
Insert white space before and after a series of paragraphs with the before/after commands in the paragraph dialog box. Use the first line indent command instead of Tab. If you use this as a general rule, you can adjust space in a whole block of text with a single command in the format paragraph dialog box.
Limit Number Of Fonts Per Page
Although the computer is able to print multiple fonts on a page, too many fonts quickly reach the point of diminishing return. As a general rule, use Times for body and Arial or Helvetica bold for headings.
Don't use Courier (or any other non-proportional font) unless you want to create an old-fashioned (pre-IBM Selectric) typewritten effect for some special reason. The whole idea of desktop publishing is to avoid the typewritten look and give your work a typeset look. In typewriter (non-proportional) spacing, the letter "i" gets the same amount of horizontal space as the letter "m". In proportional spacing, however, the amount of horizontal space is proportionate to the width of the letter. Ms and Ws get much more space than Is. [wwwwwiiiii]
Attention Teachers: If you are typing material to be read by your readers, you may want to use Courier because it looks more like manuscript writing than proportional fonts.
Never use underlining to provide emphasis for a heading. Underlining has the opposite effect. It weakens text and makes it cluttered and harder to read. On the old-fashioned typewriter, you had three ways to emphasize a heading: capitalization, underlining, and letter-spacing (or some combination of the three). However, now that you have joined the computer-driven desktop publishing revolution, leave underlining behind!
Did I hear someone ask why underlining is in a word processor's character dialog box if it isn't being used? If you are printing to a daisy wheel printer, italic may not be available. Therefore, underlining is needed to properly type footnote and bibliographic entries. However, it has little place in the laser/ink jet printer world.
Special Note: When you are typing text that is to be part of a web page on the Internet, there is another reason to avoid underlining entirely. On a web page, underlining gives the expectation that this will be a hypertext link that may be clicked upon.
Type Body Text In Upper/Lower Case
Type your body text in normal upper/lower case, not in solid caps. Limit solid caps to headings and brief sections where you want to provide emphasis. When you type in solid caps, the copy is harder to read than when you use normal upper/lower case. The human eye and brain use graphic cues to help decode printed characters into words and ideas. Look at the word girl, for example. The G goes below the line, and the L goes above it. On the other hand, GIRL is a solid block with fewer visual cues than girl.
Anyone who can read, can read solid caps. Solid caps just cause subliminal irritation, something you want to avoid.
Emphasize And Break Up Your Work With Headings
Desktop publishing lets you vary your heading emphasis with such enhancements as italics, bold, outline, shadow, small caps, or all five. (But NOT underlining.) You must type in upper/lower case in order to use the small caps enhancement.
Some word processors allow you to use very large headings with font scaling. The limit is usually 127 points. If your font dialog box allows you to enter your own size, try a numeral above 72 and see what you get.
Use A Variety Of Heading Layouts
Here are some examples but you can use your own sense of style and proportion:
IS A FREE-STANDING SIDEHEAD
The freestanding sidehead is generally considered to be the second level in a heading breakdown. The point size should be somewhere between the centered head and the paragraph sidehead.
This Is a Paragraph Sidehead. If you need a third level of breakdown, the paragraph side-head is useful. As a general rule, the point size is the same as the paragraph text but in bold; use Arial or Helvetica (instead of Times) to provide emphasis.
Beware Of "Smart Quotes"
This is an option with some word processors which makes quotation marks look more professional. If you are preparing text for E-Mail or publishing on the Web, it will be necessary to turn off smart quotes before typing the E-Mail message or other document. Quotation marks and apostrophes may be transmitted as strange characters, if you do not turn off smart quotes.
Special characters may be available through the use of the various keys. To see what's available, you may need to refer to the word processor's manual. Some computers have special fonts (such as Dingbats or Whingdings) which may be used for bullets. Each character of the keyboard will produce a special symbol when that font is used. You'll need a guide to show you what produces what.
Bullets usually look best when they are part of a hung paragraph. A hung paragraph is where the second and all subsequent lines wrap under the indent of the first line. Some word processors have a button on the tool bar which creates bullets automatically. You may not be able to change an automatic default bullet leader, however.
Charts And Cover Spines
As a general rule, charts and other graphics which are printed horizontally on the page should be bound to be read from the right. In other words, odd pages are bound along the top edge and even pages are bound along the bottom edge.
When you use ring binders with transparent vinyl pockets for inserting cover designs, inserting can be a problem. If text flows along the length of the spine, the insert must read right side up when the book is lying face up. If both vertical and horizontal text are used on the same spine insert, the text must be read in both the bookshelf and the face-up positions.
Reinforce Your Handouts With Visuals
The computer/laser/ink jet printer combination makes great overhead transparencies. WARNING: Make sure your transparency film is suitable for use with a laser printer. Never use regular copier transparency film in a laser printer. The higher heat may cause the film to melt against moving parts of your printer and cause serious damage.
When creating transparencies, observe these simple rules:
Use a sans serif font only, such as arial or helvetica.
Keep your point size at 18 or above.
Limit the content of a single transparency to three main points and a couple of subpoints, under each main point.
Never place a large block of small text on a screen and expect people to read it. Observe the 18 point rule at all times, including the text of memos and letters.
24. Hello, My Name Is ... Guidelines For Name Badges
Set all text in Arial or Helvetica bold for maximum legibility at a distance.
Place the name at the top, in 18 point, if possible. This is the most important item on a name tag so it should get top billing. Allow up to two lines so longer names (especially hyphenated names) may wrap.
Place the company or agency name next, in 12 or 14 point, if possible.
The company or workshop logo is always at the bottom. This is the least important item on a name tag since it is the same for every person.
Know Your Printer's Limitations
A. Beware of solid fills. A laser/ink jet printer prints at a resolution of 300 to 600 dots per square inch (dpi). Therefore, it may not be able to do a good job on solids, especially if they require more than one revolution of the roller when printing. By comparison, a professional laser printer may print at 2400 dpi or more. Instead of solids, use a grayscale of 80% or less, or use a shade pattern.
B. Maintain a minimum margin of .25 to .5 inches. The laser/ink jet printer cannot print to the edge of the paper. A job with a graphic which is bled to the edge should be printed by a professional print shop and then trimmed to specs.
Know The Primary Graphic Types
Listed in order of quality and ease of use in desktop publishing application; however, the better-quality images take up more space in a document.
A. Bit Map (as done in a paint program such as MacPaint). Significant resizing may cause an unpleasant moire pattern to develop.
B. PICT (picture, such as drawn in MacDraw).
C. TIFF (Tag Image File Format, such as created by scanning a photograph). TIFF graphics are memory hogs and may quickly grow to a meg or more.
D. EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) as done in Adobe Illustrator. This graphic is stored as a series of numeric specifications and then translated when printed. The quality is excellent but it is also a memory hog. [A simple 4.5x6 inch graphic I did for a wedding program quickly grew to 24 megs.
E. JPEG [.jpg] This is the format for photographs.
Click art collections are available in a variety of formats.
27. Follow These Major Steps To Prepare A Document For Publication In A Page Formatting Program Such As PageMaker.
A. Make a dummy which shows how the pages flow and the rough location of graphics and stories.
B. Set page features. Page orientation and other features may be changed after the publication is started. However, it is best to make as many decisions as possible at the beginning.
C. Set up master pages. A master page contains the elements which will appear on all pages of the finished product. Headers, footers, columns, and page numbers are examples of items normally placed on master pages.
D. Place the graphics or placeholders in their approximate locations. It is important to do this step before flowing text, so it will wrap around graphics.
E. Type text in a word processor or the PageMaker Story Editor. Spell check.
F. Place text. Use Autoflow. If you want to control and thread text page by page, hold down the shift key. If you don't hold down shift, Autoflow will add pages as needed to accommodate incoming text.
G. Screen-proof your work. Then, spell check the document again. As an added precaution, have a co-worker proof the work.. You are your own worst proof reader and many spell checkers can't detect errors in grammar and syntax. If you read this piece carefully, I'm sure you'll see ample proof of what I've just said.
H. If this document will be printed in a word processor only:
1. Insert the header/footer and imbed the page numbering command. If you are not using a header/footer, turn on the auto-numbering. If you are printing on both sides, specify separate header/footer layouts for odd and even pages.
2. Use the ruler to enter paragraph formatting commands. The ruler controls the layout of the line in which the cursor is flashing. If you select a section of text, the ruler controls the selected area. Remember that the ruler is available in both the header/footer window and the footnote window. If you set up a paragraph format and/or a series of tab stops, that format will be carried over into successive paragraphs when you press RETURN.
3. Paginate. Check each page break for appropriateness. Force page breaks as needed. For example, if a heading is separated from the paragraph it heads, force a break right above the heading with the paragraph format dialog box. Remember you can force a page break to come sooner but you can't delay one. Try to avoid using hard page breaks because they may ruin your pagination if you make additional edits. However, if you always want a page break to come at a certain spot regardless of future editing, use a hard break.
4. To prevent a page break in the middle of a paragraph: (a) select the paragraph(s) involved, (b) enter the Paragraph dialog box and click on Keep Lines Together, (c) press RETURN to close the dialog box, repaginate the document, (d) confirm from the screen or PREVIEW that the page will break as you want it to do. Certain combinations of the following factors will give you too much white space at the bottom of the pages:
Large font size
If this happens, reverse the process described above and take off the Keep Lines Together feature.
Text Formatting Tips In PageMaker
A. Type text in feature boxes and headings without the justify command, even though the majority of the page is justified.
B. Keep a heading together with at least two lines of the following paragraph. Use the paragraph format dialog box to control this. If necessary, invoke a premature page break.
C. Use the general rule of no more than two fonts per page. Macintosh and Windows computers make it very easy to apply various fonts, but use discretion. This may be a case when less is more.
Use Keyboard Shortcuts
If you are a touch typer who learned on a regular typewriter, you'll love the keyboard shortcuts you can use with most computer applications. If you learned to type on a Macintosh or Windows computer, you'll probably feel more comfortable with the mouse. However, you'll never be a power user until you can break the mouse habit and use the keyboard when a keyboard command is available. For a touch typer, the hand is still faster than the mouse.
many applications, you can pull down the menus to see which keyboard commands
are available for the various functions. To use a keyboard command: (a) hold down
the special key, such as the CONTROL key, and (b) while holding down the CONTROL
key, tap the action key. Since all keys on the computer are repeat keys, it is
critical to tap the action key, not press it.
Spell Out Acronyms
In a first reference, spell out the phrase represented by the acronym, with the acronym in parentheses. In subsequent references, the acronym may be used alone. Example: This booklet was produced by DiskBooks Electronic Publishing (DBEP). The author of the DBEP Guides ...
Get The Person's Name Right
Use full names when possible: Thomas A. Jones, F. Scott Doe. If there is a doctorate, spell it out in a first reference and then use the Dr. title thereafter: C. Everett Koop, M.D.; Dr. Koop. Dr. is used before the full name when part of a mailing address, Dr. C. Everett Koop, but not in a signature block:
J. F. Cogan, Th.D.
When abbreviating company or agency names, omit both periods and spaces, unless the entity prefers otherwise. Be careful of plural abbreviations. Do not use an apostrophe unless the context requires that possession be shown. Examples: All the CEOs attended the workshop. Each CEO's name tag was printed on a laser printer.
Collecting Information From Application Forms
There is no way to control what people may write on applications when applying to attend a workshop or seminar. However, you can control how that data is entered in a database and reproduced in subsequent agendas, name tags, and lists of participants.
Example: Applicants from the same agency (Allegheny Intermediate Unit 3) may show the following information when filling out forms:
Allegheny IU #3
Intermediate Unit #3
In each case, this agency should be translated as Allegheny IU 3. After registration information has been entered in a data base, sort each involved field in alphabetical order. This will enable you to quickly identify and correct errors and inconsistencies, especially if the data has been entered by more than one person.
In a list of names or on an agenda, omit all titles such as Miss, Mrs., Ms., Mr., and Dr. If you wish to show a doctorate, it should be abbreviated in its proper form after the name. (A person with a DR before the name may be a doctor of medicine, philosophy, education, dentistry, or veterinary medicine).
Jane Doe, MD
John Doe, Ph.D.
James Doe, D.D.S.
Joanne Doe, Ed.D.
A title is used with a full name when it is part of a mailing address. A title may be used with a surname only in a second reference but do not use Miss or Mrs. unless you know for a fact that the woman does not prefer Ms. As a general rule, a woman who prefers Miss or Mrs. will be less annoyed by Ms. than will be the case when the converse is true.
Mailing Addresses Can Be Complicated
A rural address should be written Route x, Box xx or Rt. x, Box xx. R.D. (Rural Delivery) and R.F.D. (Rural Free Delivery) are obsolete. Use the U.S. Postal Service two-letter abbreviations for a state's name. However, use conventional abbreviations when the name of the state is not part of a mailing address.
Harrisburg PA 17105
He lives in Harrisburg, Pa. (or Penna.)
At one time, the United States Postal Service (USPS) requested that mail addresses be typed in solid caps without punctuation. However, advances in optical character recognition (OCR) software now makes it possible for the USPS to scan addresses which have been typed in a conventional manner; punctuation omitted.
Take Your Time
Write time as 8:30 A.M. or 4:30 p.m.
These forms should not be used: 8:30am or 4:30 pm
Use And ...
Avoid using "&" (ampersand) unless it is part of a tradename or a lack of space demands it. Don't use the symbol @ unless it is part of a price, formula, or e-mail address.
Hyphens, Dashes, And Automatic Hyphenation
A dash joins a range of times in an agenda, and is longer than a hyphen. (If your software can't produce a dash, use two hyphen (--). Non-breaking hyphens join the components of a phone number so they are not separated by word wrap. Breaking hyphens are used by the hyphenation command to automatically break words at the end of lines. Never hyphenate a word manually by typing a hyphen. Such a hyphen will prevent proper word wrap after a future edit or font change. Invoke the hyphenation command instead. However, during automatic hyphenation, you can type a hyphen in a dialog box to force a word break at a specific spot.
Typewriters are an out-of-date means of writing reports. (Breaking hyphens)
9:30 -- 10:00 A.M. Registration (Dash)
717-697-8122 (Non-breaking hyphens)
The First Shall Be First
Try to list names with first name first. If the names are drawn from a database file, both FIRST and LAST should have separate fields. Then they can be listed and displayed properly but sorted by last name.
Teachers: We Teach Students
Use student and not child when referring to person(s) being taught or trained. A child is a person of a specific age range. The word student does not imply a particular age range. Anyone can be a student, including you and me. It is inappropriate to refer to a 19-year-old as a child. Never use a disability as a noun or adjective. Incorrect: the disabled students are..., the handicapped require.... The preferred usage is students/persons with disabilities.
Watch Mixed Upper And Lower Case
The computer world is hung up on mixing upper and lower case in tradenames.
When keying these terms and others like them, always preserve the upper/lower case mix, even when the remainder of a heading is in solid caps. Where a registered trademark is involved, the capitalization is part of that trademark.
Example of a headline:
PageMaker SUPPORT GROUP HOLDS WORKSHOP ON USING LaserWriter.
Body and headings: as a general rule, a bold sans serif font (such as arial or helvetica) is best for headings and titles, while a plain serif font (such as Times) is better for body text. As of this writing, "Time Magazine" follows the general model of bold sans serif font for headings and plain serif font for body.
Body: a paragraph or paragraphs under a heading.
Brochure: a handout which describes a process, product, or event.
Bullet: a short, descriptive statement; may be part of an outline; often started with an eye-catching symbol.
Camera-ready original: a clean copy of a product which is ready for quantity duplication; in desktop publishing, camera-ready originals are often created with a laser/ink jet printer.
Carriage return: the symbol which marks the end of a paragraph.
Click art: graphic images which are available for instant use in a document.
Compose: the act of combining text and graphics to create a product ready for publication.
Desktop publishing: the use of a computer and a high-resolution printer to produce camera-ready originals which will have a typeset appearance. The production of an original may use one or more applications. Desktop publishing may involve the use of page formatting software such as PageMaker. High-end word processors (such as Microsoft Word and WordPerfect) include features which may be used in many desktop publishing routines.
DPI: dots per square inch, the measure of the resolution of a printer.
Dummy: a rough layout of a document to give a general idea of the appearance of the printed product.
Font: the ability of a computer and printer to create printed characters in a specific style, such as Times or arial or helvetica A professional printer may consider a font to be a typeface in a particular point size such as Times 12 or Times 18.
Footer: information which appears at the bottom of every page in a section of a manuscript. A footer may include an embedded page number. See "header" .
Format: selecting the fonts, indenting, spacing, and other appearance features which are appropriate for a specific document or segment of a document.
Graphics: the elements of a format which are not textual in nature; usually images, borders, or frames.
Grayscale: in a black and white document, the percentage of a filled area which is black as opposed to white; zero percent grayscale is white and 100 percent is black. Percents between 0 and 100 are varying shades of gray.
Gutenberg: the inventor of movable type, in the 1500's. Before movable type, a page of text was created by carving it out of a block of wood. Gutenberg is credited with putting the printed page in the hands of the common people. The Holy Bible was the first book printed with moveable type. Now, the desktop publishing revolution, with microcomputers and high resolution printers, has put the typesetting of the page in the hands of the people.
Gutter: space along the inside margins of a book's pages which allows for the binding process. When the book is to be bound in an office with a process such as spiral binding, the typical gutter is an extra half inch along both inside margins.
Header: information which appears at the top of every page in a section of a manuscript. A header may include an embedded page number. See "footer" .
High-end, as in high-end word processor: applications which have advanced features useful when creating camera-ready originals. Microsoft Word and WordPerfect are considered high-end word processors.
Hung: a form of indenting a paragraph where the first line is not indented and all remaining lines are indented an equal distance. Hung paragraphs are often begun with a bullet and a tab stop. (See "bullet" .) If a typist attempts to hang a paragraph manually by using the space bar, return, and tab keys, the file will be damaged in a way which will make it impossible to make future edits while maintaining the current font.
Imbedded page number: including a word processor's pagination command in the text of the header or footer. With Macintosh and Windows word processors, this is as simple as clicking the page number icon while the header/footer window is open and the cursor is flashing.
Justification, full right: a block of text where all lines end at the same point along the right margin, creating a straight line.
JPEG: Format for electronic publishing of photos. With Windows, the extension is .jpg
Kerning: controlling the amount of horizontal space between letters of a word.
Keyboard shortcuts: using key combinations to give a command instead of pulling down a menu with the mouse and selecting a command. The hand (with fingers on the keyboard) is usually quicker than the mouse, after the keyboard shortcuts have been memorized.
Layout: the combination of text and graphics to create a printable product.
Leading (ledding): the amount of vertical space between lines of type.
Margins: the space between the edge of the paper and the beginning of text of graphics (top, bottom, left, right). For manuscripts which are to be bound into books, the left/right margins will be know as inside and outside. The inside margin will include a specified amount of space to accommodate the binding, known as a gutter.
Original: a sheet which comes out of a printer, before it has been copied. Originals should be used for duplication, instead of duplicating a copy of an original.
Page breaks: the point at which the software starts another page. You can use a hard page break command to start another page before the copy gets down to the bottom margin. However, you cannot delay a page break past the bottom of the page without making changes to the format. These formatting changes can include a smaller font size, less leading/kerning, a margin change, or a more compact font.
Page formatting software: all high-end word processors can create camera-ready originals of desktop publishing quality. However, page formatting software, such as PageMaker for Macintosh and Windows, can offer more powerful options.
Paginate: putting numbers on the pages. All application used in desktop publishing can number pages automatically. Therefore, it is unwise to manually type page numbers at the point you assume a page will break. Future editing, such as adding or deleting text, may cause the pages to break out of synch with the typed page numbers.
Proportional spacing: the letter "i" takes up less horizontal space than the letters "w" or "m" . In a non-proportional font, all characters are given the same amount of horizontal space, giving the text a typewritten (amateurish look). "Courier" is an example of a non-proportional font, while "Times" is proportional.
Printer: the device which creates a camera-ready original from a document created on a microcomputer with desktop publishing software. To be used in desktop publishing, a printer needs two criteria: a resolution of at least 300 dpi (dots per square inch), and the ability to print proportionally-spaced fonts. Laser/ink jet printers can meet both these criteria. Dot matrix and daisy wheel printers cannot.
Printer, Laser: This is the first choice for desktop publishing. Resolutions begin at 300 dpi and speeds begin at about ten pages per minute.
Printer, Ink jet: This is the second choice for desktop publishing. Resolutions begin at 300 dpi but speeds are as slow as one page or less per minute.
Printer, Daisy wheel: A device which receives information from a computer and prints it on paper by using a circular printwheel containing a molded character for each key on the keyboard. Such printers are often called "letter quality" because the product is judged good enough to mail to someone. Daisy wheel printers are comparatively slow and noisy as the printwheel pecks away at the paper. A daisy wheel printer is generally considered to be unsuitable for desktop publishing because of the limited choices of fonts and styles.
Printer, Dot matrix: A device which receives information from a computer and prints it on paper by using a printhead containing stiff wires. Characters are formed when a specific configuration of the wires strike the ribbon. The principle is similar to the way numbers are displayed on a sports score board. A dot matrix printer is generally considered to be unsuitable for desktop publishing because of the low resolution of the printouts.
Resolution: degree to which a printer can create a typeset appearance in a camera-ready original, measured in dots per square inch (dpi). The minimum resolution for desktop publishing is considered to be 300 dpi.
Sans serif font: the term "serif" refers to the little ornamental tails on the such letters as Fs, Ts, and Ls. The term "sans" is Latin for without. Therefore, a sans serif font is one without tails. arial or helvetica is a commonly-used sans serif font.
Scaling: a proportional increase or decrease of the size of a graphic.
Scanner: an office machine which can "take a picture" of a printed page and turn it into a computer word processor or graphic file. A scanner uses a process called optical character recognition to create a word processor file from a printed page, complete with automatic word wrap and tab stops.
Serif font: A serif font has little "handles" on the characters which tend to make them flow together, making blocks of text easier to read.
Shade pattern: Many applications offer the option to fill a graphic area with a wide variety of fill patterns.
Smart quotes: quotation marks which look like regular printed characters instead of double apostrophes. Warning: the command used by a word processor to create smart quotes may be translated as an odd character when a document is saved as a text (ASCII) file for use over E-Mail; in such a case, the smart quotes option should be turned off before a file is sent over E-Mail.
Spine: the bound edge of a book If text flows along the length of a spine, it must be read when the book is lying face up. If both vertical and horizontal text are used on the same spine, the respective text must read in both the bookshelf and the face-up positions.
Typeset: an appearance which seems to have been created by setting type and printing with a movable type press.
Typeface, or just face: the physical appearance of a set of characters, such as Times or arial or helvetica. Desktop publishers tend to use "font" instead of face.
Typestyle: a general enhancement for a typeface, such as: BOLD, ITALIC, or OUTLINE.
Word processor: a computer program which allows the typist to create pages of electronic text which can be saved to disk as a computer file, and printed with a printer on paper. Standard features of a basic word processor include the following: automatic word wrap; block copy, move, and delete; global search and replace; spell checking.
Word wrap: the process used by a word processor to automatically end a line of text at the margin and start a new line. The typist never presses RETURN until it is time to start a new paragraph. Failure to observe this rule may make it impossible to make future edits while maintaining proper margins.
WYSIWYG: Desktop publishing acronym for What You See Is What You Get. This means the printer prints the page as it appears on the screen. Pronounced "WHIZZY-wig."
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